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The Ultimate Guide to SeisImager Pickwin v3.14 with Plotrefa v2.73 for Refraction Seismic Data Processing and Interpretation



SeisImager Pickwin v3.14 with Plotrefa v2.73 tested




Are you interested in exploring the subsurface structure of the earth using refraction seismic method? Do you want to know how to process and interpret refraction seismic data using a reliable and powerful software package? If yes, then you are in the right place. In this article, we will introduce you to SeisImager Pickwin v3.14 with Plotrefa v2.73, a software package that has been tested and proven by many users for refraction seismic data processing and interpretation. We will explain what SeisImager Pickwin and Plotrefa are, what are their features and benefits, how to use them for refraction seismic data processing, and how to test their performance and accuracy.




SeisImager Pickwin v3.14 with Plotrefa v2.73 | tested


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Introduction




Before we dive into the details of SeisImager Pickwin and Plotrefa, let us first understand what refraction seismic method is and why it is useful.


What is refraction seismic method and why is it useful?




Refraction seismic method is a geophysical technique that uses sound waves to explore the subsurface structure of the earth. It works by generating sound waves at the surface using a source such as a hammer or an explosive, and recording the arrival times of the waves at different locations using receivers such as geophones or seismometers. The sound waves travel through different layers of the earth with different velocities depending on their density and elasticity. Some of the waves are reflected back to the surface when they encounter a boundary between two layers, while some of them are refracted along the boundary due to Snell's law. By analyzing the travel time curves of the refracted waves, we can infer the velocity and thickness of each layer, as well as the depth and shape of the boundary.


Refraction seismic method is useful for various applications such as engineering geology, hydrogeology, environmental geology, mineral exploration, etc. It can provide information about the depth, thickness, dip angle, faulting, fracturing, weathering, groundwater level, etc., of different subsurface layers. It can also help to locate buried objects such as pipes, cables, tunnels, etc.


What are the challenges and limitations of refraction seismic data processing and interpretation?




Although refraction seismic method is a powerful technique for subsurface exploration, it also has some challenges and limitations that need to be addressed by proper data processing and interpretation. Some of these challenges and limitations are:



  • Noise contamination: The recorded seismic data may contain noise from various sources such as wind, traffic, electrical interference, etc., that can obscure or distort the signal quality.



  • First break picking: The first break is the first arrival of the refracted wave at each receiver location, and it is crucial for velocity analysis. However, picking the first break manually can be tedious, time-consuming, and subjective, while picking it automatically can be inaccurate or unreliable.



  • Velocity analysis: The velocity analysis is the process of determining the velocity and thickness of each layer using different methods such as delay time, reciprocal time, generalized reciprocal method, etc. However, these methods have some assumptions and limitations such as constant velocity within each layer, horizontal layering, no velocity inversion, no blind zone, etc., that may not be valid for complex geologic situations.



  • Tomography inversion: The tomography inversion is the process of producing a high-resolution image of the subsurface structure using an inversion algorithm that iteratively updates a starting model based on the observed travel times. However, this process can be computationally intensive, non-unique, and sensitive to noise, initial model, and inversion parameters.



  • Model visualization and interpretation: The model visualization and interpretation is the process of displaying and understanding the inverted model using various tools such as contour maps, cross sections, profiles, slices, etc. However, this process can be challenging due to the uncertainty, resolution, and complexity of the model.



To overcome these challenges and limitations, we need a software package that can provide us with a comprehensive solution for refraction seismic data processing and interpretation. That's where SeisImager Pickwin and Plotrefa come in.


What is SeisImager Pickwin and Plotrefa?




SeisImager Pickwin and Plotrefa are two complementary software programs that work together to provide a complete solution for refraction seismic data processing Continuing the article from where I left off. and interpretation.


What are the features and benefits of SeisImager Pickwin v3.14 and Plotrefa v2.73?




SeisImager Pickwin v3.14 and Plotrefa v2.73 are the latest versions of these software programs that have been tested and improved by Geometrics based on user feedback and technical advancements. Here are some of the features and benefits of these versions:


SeisImager Pickwin v3.14: improved user interface, automatic picking, filtering, velocity analysis, etc.





  • Improved user interface that is more intuitive and user-friendly



  • Automatic picking of first breaks with manual override option



  • Comprehensive filtering options to remove noise and enhance signal quality



  • Different methods for velocity analysis such as delay time, reciprocal time, generalized reciprocal method, etc.



  • Ability to draw velocity cross sections, ray trace them, and display travel time curves



  • Ability to simulate a complete seismic refraction survey by drawing a geologic cross section of your site and conducting a modeling exercise



  • Ability to export velocity model to Plotrefa or other formats



Plotrefa v2.73: enhanced inversion algorithm, ray tracing, lateral velocity variations, velocity inversions, blind zones, etc.





  • Enhanced inversion algorithm that handles lateral velocity variations, velocity inversions, blind zones, etc.



  • Ability to perform ray tracing using different methods such as straight ray, bent ray, fast marching method, etc.



  • Ability to visualize and interpret the inverted model using various tools such as contour maps, cross sections, profiles, slices, etc.



  • Ability to import velocity model from SeisImager Pickwin or other sources



  • Ability to export inverted model to other formats



How to use SeisImager Pickwin v3.14 with Plotrefa v2.73 for refraction seismic data processing?




To use SeisImager Pickwin v3.14 with Plotrefa v2.73 for refraction seismic data processing, you need to follow these steps:


Step 1: Import or record seismic data with SeisImager Pickwin




You can import seismic data from Geometrics seismographs or other formats such as SEG-2, SEG-Y, SU, etc., or you can record seismic data directly from Geometrics seismographs using SeisImager Pickwin. You can also edit the survey parameters such as shot location, receiver location, sampling rate, etc.


Step 2: Identify first breaks and clean up noisy data with SeisImager Pickwin




You can use the automatic picker to identify the first breaks on each trace, or you can manually pick them using the mouse or keyboard. You can also view all your prior picks simultaneously for shot-to-shot coherence. You can use various filtering options such as band-pass filter, spike filter, median filter, etc., to remove noise and enhance signal quality.


Step 3: Perform velocity analysis and draw velocity cross sections with SeisImager Pickwin




You can use different methods for velocity analysis such as delay time, reciprocal time, generalized reciprocal method, etc., and choose the best one for your data. You can also adjust the layer boundaries, layer velocities, and layer thicknesses manually or automatically. You can draw velocity cross sections using different options such as linear interpolation, spline interpolation, etc., and ray trace them using different options such as straight ray, bent ray, fast marching method, etc. You can also display the travel time curves for each shot point.


Step 4: Export velocity model to Plotrefa and perform tomography inversion with Plotrefa




You can export the velocity model from SeisImager Pickwin to Plotrefa or other formats such as ASCII text file, binary file, etc. You can then import the velocity model into Plotrefa and perform tomography inversion using an enhanced inversion algorithm that handles lateral velocity variations, velocity inversions, blind zones, etc., and produces high-resolution images of the subsurface structure.


Step 5: Visualize and interpret the inverted model with Plotrefa




You can visualize and interpret the inverted model using various tools such as contour maps, cross sections, profiles, slices, etc. You can also compare the inverted model with the original velocity model or other models to evaluate the quality and accuracy of the inversion.


How to test the performance and accuracy of SeisImager Pickwin v3.14 with Plotrefa v2.73?




To test the performance and accuracy of SeisImager Pickwin v3.14 with Plotrefa v2.73, you can use some of the following methods:


Use WaveEq to analyze dispersion curves and compare with theoretical values




WaveEq is a program that reads the Pickwin file to analyze dispersion curves of surface waves such as Rayleigh waves or Love waves. Dispersion curves show how the phase velocity of surface waves varies with frequency. By comparing the dispersion curves obtained from WaveEq with theoretical values calculated from known layer velocities and thicknesses, you can assess how well SeisImager Pickwin and Plotrefa capture the subsurface structure.


Use synthetic models to simulate different geologic scenarios and compare with inverted models




You can use synthetic models to simulate different geologic scenarios such as dipping layers, faults, fractures, cavities, etc., and generate synthetic seismic data using SeisImager Pickwin's modeling function. You can then process and invert the synthetic data using SeisImager Pickwin and Plotrefa, and compare the inverted models with the synthetic models to evaluate how well SeisImager Pickwin and Plotrefa handle complex geologic situations.


Use field data from real surveys and compare with geologic information




You can also use field data from real surveys that have been conducted using Geometrics seismographs or other instruments, and process and invert them using SeisImager Pickwin and Plotrefa. You can then compare the inverted models with geologic information obtained from boreholes, wells, outcrops, maps, etc., to verify how well SeisImager Pickwin and Plotrefa match the reality.